नष्ट होती धरोहर

मेरे लिए यह खबर एक शॉक की तरह थी कि आज की तारीख में भारत की पहली बोलती फिल्म आलमआरा का कोई प्रिंट मौजूद नहीं है। यह देश और समाज की धरोहर के प्रति एक अक्षम्य लापरवाही है। भारतीय सिनेमा का इतिहास आलमआरा का जिक्र किए बिना पूरा ही नहीं हो सकता, मगर आज उस फिल्म के प्रिंट को न तो नेशनल आर्काइव सहेज कर रख सका और न ही किसी निजी संग्रहकर्ता के पास उसके होने की खबर है। नेशनल फिल्म आर्काइव के अफसरों ने खुद स्वीकार किया है कि इस ऐतिहासिक फिल्म की चंद तस्वीरों के प्रिंट भर उनके पास रह गए हैं।14 मार्च सन् 1931 को इम्पीरियल फिल्म कंपनी के बैनर से भारत की पहली बोलती फिल्म आलमआरा का प्रदर्शन हुआ था। जोसेफ डेविड नामके लेखक का यह नाटक आलमआरा पहले ही स्टेज पर हिट हो चुका था। बेवफा पत्नी, राजघराने की साजिशें, वफादार सेनापति, प्रेम और उत्तराधिकार की लड़ाई की कथा कहती इस फिल्म का निर्देशन आर्देशिर ईरानी ने किया था। यह वो दौर था जब 1927 में पहली ध्वनि से जुड़ी फिल्म द जॉज सिंगर ने सिनेमा में ध्वनि के औचित्य पर एक बहस छेड़ दी थी। आम तौर पर लोग मानते थे कि बोलती फिल्में कुछ ही वक्त का खुमार है जो बाद में उतर जाएगा और यह मूक फिल्मों कलामत्कता से बराबरी नहीं कर सकेगा।

पिछले वर्ष इसी तरह की एक खबर पढ़ने को मिली थी जिसमें कोलकाता में सरकारी उपेक्षा के चलते ऋत्विक घटक की फिल्मों के प्रिंट सीलन और बरसात से खराब होने का जिक्र था। यदा-कदा सत्यजीत रे की कुछ महान फिल्मों के प्रिंट की दुर्लभता का जिक्र पढ़ने को मिल जाता है। इतना ही नहीं अपने महान निर्देशकों और उऩकी फिल्मों के बारे में लोगों को जानकारी देने का हमारे पास कोई योजनाबद्ध तरीका नहीं है। नेशनल फिल्म आर्काइव तक आम आदमी की तो दूर शोधार्थियों तक की पहुंच मुश्किल से हो पाती है। वहीं अमेरिकन और यूरोपियन सिनेमा के बारे में योजनाबद्ध जानकारी का भंडार मौजूद है।

महज विकीपीडिया और इंटरनेट मूवी डाटा बेस पर आप किसी भी महत्वपूर्ण फिल्म से जुड़ी जानकारी और उससे जुड़े तमाम संदर्भों को खंगाल सकते हैं। दुनिया भर की नई-पुरानी फिल्मों के पोस्टर पर आपको कई वेबसाइट्स मिल जाएंगी। बल्कि मैंने पोस्टरों की बदलती शैली और उनसे जुड़े सामाजिक परिप्रेक्ष्य का विश्लेषण करने वाली एक पूरी किताब भी देखी है। रॉटन टोमैटोज़ में आप विश्व की किसी भी अहम फिल्म पर चुनिंदा समीक्षकों के रिव्यू पढ़ सकते हैं। ब्रिटिश फिल्म इंस्टीट्यूट की वेबसाइट और सेन्सेज आफ सिनेमा की तो खैर अपनी एक गरिमा है। भारतीय वेबसाइट्स में अपरस्टाल डॉट कॉम को छो़ड़ कर मुझे किसी भी दूसरी साइट पर गंभीर किस्म का काम नहीं दिखा।

अफसोस इस बात का है कि सरकारी प्रयासों से हटकर कोई निजी प्रयास इस धरोहर को भावी पीढ़ी के लिए संजोने के काम में आगे आते नहीं दिखते। न तो सिनेमाप्रेमी और न ही फिल्म से जुड़े लोग। पिछले दिनों जब दुनिया के कुछ चुनिंदा निर्देशकों की फिल्मों के डीवीडी सेट निकालने वाली कंपनी पालाडोर पिक्चर्स की ओर से बैंगलोर में इंग्मार बर्गमॅन की फिल्मों का समारोह हुआ तो मैंने उनसे भारतीय सिनेमा पर इस तरह के काम की संभावनाओं के बारे में जानना चाहा, कंपनी के सत्येन ने कहा कि उन्हें भारत में खास तौर पर सरकारी प्रतिष्ठानों से बहुत असहयोगात्मक रुख का सामना करना पड़ता है।

इसी तरह विश्व सिनेमा पर केंद्रित यूटीवी के चैनल वर्ल्ड मूवीज़ में प्रदर्शित होने वाली दुनिया की तमाम भाषाओं में (जिनमें हिब्रू भी शामिल थी) की फिल्मों की सूची में भारत की एक भी फिल्म न होने से मैं आश्चर्य में पड़ गया। मैंने उन्हें इस सिलसिले में एक मेल किया तो कुछ दिनों बाद जवाब भी आया कि नहीं हमारा ध्यान भारतीय फिल्मों की ओर भी है और मेल में ऐसी कुछ फिल्मों की प्रसारण तिथि का भी जिक्र था।
मगर क्या इतनी कोशिशे नष्ट होती धरोहर को संभालने के लिए काफी हैं?

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