प्रलय की कहानियां


सिनेमा में तबाही की अवधारणा बाकायदा फिल्म मेकिंग की एक धारा के रूप में डेवलप हो चुकी है, जिनमें दुनिया के अंत या बुरे भविष्य की आशंकाओं के आसपास कहानी बुनी जाती है.
चाहे भारत में जबरदस्त सफल रही हॉलीवुड की ‘2012’ हो, या हाल में आई ‘स्काईलाइन’ या कुछ बरस पहले धूमकेतु के धरती से टकराने का अंदेशा लेकर बनी ‘डीप इंपैक्ट’. मनुष्य को बुरे भविष्य की कल्पना हमेशा सताती रहती है. इस तरह की फिल्में सिनेमा के जन्म साथ ही बननी शुरु हो गई थीं. भारत में ऐसी फिल्मों का चलन भले न हो मगर शेखर कपूर भविष्य पर आधारित अपनी फिल्म ‘पानी’ लेकर आ रहे हैं, जिसमें दिखाया जाएगा कि आने वाले समय में पानी जैसी बुनियादी जरूरत पर भी प्रभावशाली लोगों का कब्जा होगा.अगर गौर करें तो प्रलय की कहानियां लगभग हर सिविलाइजेशन की माइथोलॉजी में सुनने-पढ़ने को मिलती हैं. दिलचस्प बात यह है कि यह पॉपुलर कल्चर का भी अहम हिस्सा है. सिनेमा में तो तबाही की अवधारणा बाकायदा फिल्म मेकिंग की एक धारा के रूप में डेवलप हो चुकी है, जिनमें दुनिया के अंत या बुरे भविष्य की आशंकाओं के आसपास कहानी बुनी जाती है. इनमें पोस्ट-अपाकलिप्टिक और डिस्टोपियन सिनेमा मुख्य रूप से सामने आते हैं.

डिस्टोपियन सिनेमा को एंटी-यूटोपियन सिनेमा भी कहते हैं. यह एक कठिन समय की अवधारणा को लेकर चलता है. आम तौर पर यह एक ऐसे भविष्य की कल्पना होती है, जहां मानव सभ्यता एक मुश्किल दौर से गुजर रही होती है. मौजूदा वक्त की आशंकाएं या बुराइयां अपने चरम रूप में नजर जाती हैं. ये आशंकाएं कुछ भी हो सकती हैं, नाभिकीय युद्ध, प्रदूषण की इंतहा, राजनीतिक तानाशाही या समाज में पनप रही हिंसा. साहित्य में हम जार्ज आरवेल के उपन्यास ‘1984’ और ’द एनीमल फार्म’ तथा चेक लेखक कैरेल चैपेक के नाटक ‘आरयूआर’ में डिस्टोपियन भविष्य की झलक देख सकते हैं.

कई बरस पहले आई रिडले स्कॉट की फिल्म ‘ब्लेड रनर’ में 2016 का लॉस एजेंल्स दिखाया गया है, जब शहर में असाधारण रूप से जनसंख्या बढ़ चुकी है, मौसम अक्सर खराब रहता है और शहर में जबरदस्त प्रदूषण है. वहीं पोलिटिकल डिस्टोपिया में उस वक्त की कल्पना होती है जब राजनीतिक ताकतें मनुष्य की निजी जिंदगी पर नियंत्रण करना शुरु कर देती हैं अथवा उनकी बुनियादी जरूरतों या सूचना हासिल करने के अधिकार पर सत्ता का नियंत्रण हो जाता है. इस तरह की फिल्मों में एलन मूर के ग्राफिक नॉवेल पर बनी वाचोव्स्की ब्रदर्स की फिल्म ‘वी फॉर वेंडेटा’ खास तौर पर उल्लेखनीय है. इसके अलावा इस तरह की फिल्मों में ’चिल्ड्रेन आर मेन’, ’क्लास आफ 1999’, ’कोड 46’ और 2009 में आई ‘डिस्ट्रिक्ट 9’ का नाम भी लिया जा सकता है.

डिस्टोपियन फिल्मों में अक्सर राजनीतिक सोच काफी स्पष्ट तौर पर सामने आती है। उदाहरण के तौर पर ‘वी फार वेंडेटा’ में निकट भविष्य के ब्रिटेन में विकसित हुई राजनीतिक तानाशाही को दिखाया गया है, जिसके खिलाफ एक व्यक्ति मध्यकालीन नायक का मुखौटा लगाकर क्रांति नायक की तरह काम करता है. ठीक इसी तरह से ‘डिस्ट्रिक्ट 9’ एलियंस के बहाने मनुष्य की तानाशाही प्रवृतियों की पड़ताल करती है. इस फिल्म में एक ऐसे भविष्य की कहानी है, जहां एलियंस धरती पर ही मनुष्यों के साथ रहते हैं, मगर उनके जीने की स्थितियां बहुत ही कठिन होती हैं.

डिस्टोपियन भविष्य को प्रस्तुत करने के तरीके भी अलग-अलग हो सकते हैं. इनमें एक ‘वैकल्पिक भविष्य’ की थ्योरी है, जिसके तहत एक ऐसे वर्तमान अथवा भविष्य की कल्पना की जाती है, जो दरअसल में इतिहास में हुई कुछ उथल-पुथल के चलते घटनाओं के बदले क्रम का नतीजा है. इसका सबसे दिलचस्प उदाहरण एलन मूर के ग्राफिक नावेल पर बनी फिलम ‘वॉचमैन’ है। जिसमें नब्बे के दशक में शीतयुद्ध को खत्म होता दिखाने की बजाय उसे चरम पर दिखाया गया है. आम तौर पर इन फिल्मों में किसी ऐतिहासिक घटना में हुए बदलाव के आधार पर भविष्य की कल्पना की जाती है. जहां से स्थितियां बदलती हैं, उसे ‘प्वाइंट आफ डाइवर्जन’ कहते हैं.

डिस्टोपियन फिल्मों की सीरीज में पोस्ट-अपाकलिप्टिक फिल्मों को भी रखा जाता है. जिनमें किसी तबाही के बाद की सामाजिक स्थितियों का चित्रण होता है. हॉलीवुड में ऐसी फिल्में काफी लोकप्रिय हुई हैं और कई बेहतरीन कहानियां सामने आई हैं. इस तरह की फिल्मों में ‘9’, ’12 मंकीज़’, ‘आय एम लीजेंड’, ‘मैड मैक्स’ व उसकी सिरीज़, तथा ‘वाले-ई’ जैसी फिल्मों में नाम लिया जा सकता है. यहां सवाल उठ सकता है कि ऐसा क्यों है कि बुरे सपने जैसा भविष्य दिखाने वाली फिल्में लोगों के बीच इतनी लोकप्रिय क्यों हैं? दरअसल ये फिल्में पॉपुलर कल्चर का इस्तेमाल करते हुए सोसाइटी में एक अलर्ट पैदा करती हैं. ये कहानियां सोसाइटी में पनप रही उन बुराइयों की लैब टेस्टिंग की तरह हैं, जिन्हें अक्सर हम अनदेखा करते जाते हैं.

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