क्या कृष्ण हैं भारतीय नायक?

जहां हर बालक इक मोहन है, और राधा इक-इक बाला…
सिकन्दर-ए-आज़म (1965) में राजेन्द्र कृष्ण का लिखा गीत


भारतीय नायक की आर्किटाइपल छवि क्या है? पश्चिम में यह ग्रीक मिथकों और बाइबिल की महागाथा से ओतप्रोत है. वहां मनुष्य और प्राकृतिक शक्तियों के बीच संघर्ष ज्यादा गहरा होकर उभरता है. इसके उलट भारतीय समाज लंबे समय से नायकों की पूजा करता चला आ रहा है. हमारे पौराणिक आख्यानों में नायकों की एक लंबी श्रृंखला है. मगर जो दो अहम नायक भारतीय जीवन में रचे बसे हैं वो हैं राम और कृष्ण. ये दो नाम ही चुनने के पीछे खास वजहें हैं, एक तो अन्य देवी-देवताओं के मुकाबले ये ज्यादा मानवीय हैं, इन्होंने एक आम मनुष्य के अवतार में जन्म से मृत्यु तक का एक पूरा सफर या पौराणिक शब्दावली का सहारा लें तो लीला रची (दिलचस्प है कि यह ‘लीला’ शब्द हमारे नाट्य या सिनेमा के काफी करीब बैठता है); दूसरे इन नायकों का जीवन, घटनाएं और मूल्य हमारे रोजमर्रा के जीवन में जब-तब उदाहरण बनते हैं.


भारतीय सिनेमा का नायक आम तौर पर राम और कृष्ण की छवि को ही खुद में समाहित करता है. राम यानी जिम्मेदार, मूल्यों पर यकीन करने वाला, सभी को साथ लेकर चलने वाला, सहनशील और उदार नायक. कृष्ण यानी पहली सतह पर चंचल, दिलफेंक, चीजों के प्रति अगंभीर रवैये वाला मगर दूसरी सतह पर बेहद शार्प और मौका आने पर चमत्कारिक तरीके से नतीजे देने वाला नायक. भारतीय नायक के ये दोनों चेहरे समानांतर रूप से भारतीय सिनेमा में मौजूद रहे हैं. भारतीय सिनेमा का आरंभ राम की नायकत्व वाली छवि के साथ होता नजर आता है. कृष्ण की चंचल छवि सहनायक के रूप में सामने आती है. धीरे-धीरे इस चंचल, गतिमान, शार्प नायक ने यह साबित कर दिया हमारे इस जटिल समय के नायक की जड़ें कृष्ण में भी खुद को तलाशती हैं.


कृष्ण भारतीय नायक की छवि पर कितना सटीक बैठते हैं इसका सबसे बड़ा उदाहरण यह है सुभाष घई ने अपनी फिल्म हीरो के नायक का नाम ही किशन रखा और बंसी हमेशा उसके हाथों में. कृष्ण के जीवन में भारतीय नायक को गढ़ने वाले तमाम तत्व पर्याप्त रूप से उपस्थित हैं. रोमांस, खिलंदड़ापन, योद्धा और अंततः एक जीवन दर्शन लेकर सामने आने वाला शख्स. यह एक मल्टीडाइमेंशनल पर्सनैलिटी है. यह हर रिश्ते को बड़ी गहराई से उभारता है. मां के रिश्ते में यह यशोदा और देवकी के बीच का कान्फ्लिक्ट लेकर आता है. जिसे बाद में हम मुख्यधारा की कई फिल्मों में देखते हैं. भाई-भाई के तौर पर कृष्ण-बलराम की जोड़ी ने खूब रंग खिलाए हैं. कृष्ण के जीवन में प्रेम और मित्रता के रंग भी काफी गहरे हैं. इसमें बिछोह भी है, शरारत भी है और त्याग भी. राधा और द्रौपदी से उनका मित्रवत संवाद उनके व्यक्तित्व को नया आयाम देता है. सुदामा और कृष्ण का प्रसंग भी दोस्ती के कुछ उदाहरणों में शामिल है. आगे कृष्ण और अर्जुन की दोस्ती अलग तरीके से सामने आती है, वे दोस्त के साथ मार्गदर्शक बनकर भी उभरते हैं.


कई बार कृष्ण ने छल का सहारा तो लिया मगर बड़े हितों को ध्यान में रखते हुए. उन्होंने सिर्फ मूल्यों का अनुसरण करने की बजाय उनका अवमूल्यन करने वालों को उन्हीं की भाषा में जवाब दिया. उन्होंने लचीला रुख अपनाया और मौके के मुताबिक अपनी रणनीति बदली. भलाई और बुराई के बीच संघर्ष में हमेशा कृष्ण उभरते हैं. याद करें राजीव राय की फिल्म युद्ध में यह पंक्ति तीन बार दोहराई जाती है, वह भी सबसे अहम प्रसंगों में- “डंके की चोट पड़ी है/ सामने मौत खड़ी है/ कृष्ण ने कहा अर्जुन से/ न प्यार जता दुश्मन से/ युद्ध कर”.  फिल्मों में कठिन निर्णय के दौर में अक्सर युद्धभूमि पर अर्जुन को उपदेश देते कृष्ण की तस्वीर सामने आती है. कृष्ण दुविधा और आत्मसंघर्ष के क्षणों को भी सामने लाते हैं. मगर यह पश्चिमी मन की दुविधा नहीं है, जो हैमलेट के रूप में सामने आती है, यह दुविधा से उबरकर संघर्ष तक ले जाती है.

तो आपका क्या मानना है, कृष्ण ही हैं हमारे नायक?  वैसे कुछ और पौराणिक नायकों का इस दृष्टि से विश्लेषण दिलचस्प रहेगा.

 

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    जी बिलकुल कृष्ण ही हैं हमारे नायक।

    भगवान विष्णु के सभी अवतारों में केवल कृष्ण ही पूर्ण अवतार माने गये हैं, विष्णु की सभी सोलह कलाओं से युक्त। इसलिये वे मल्टीडायमेंशनल पर्सनैलिटी हैं। उन्होंने सज्जनों का साथ दिया, दुर्जनों को दंड दिया, धर्म की रक्षा की, प्रेम का सन्देश दिया, मोक्ष का मार्ग बताया। जीवन का कोई पहलू नहीं जिसे कृष्णावतार ने न छुआ हो इसीलिये वे परब्रह्म कृष्ण ही हमारे नायक हैं।

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